Fragmentation

We have traced, very briefly, the history of French art  from Academic Romanticism (e.g. painters such as Bouguereau,  Meissonnier and Delacroix), to the Realists (Courbet), to the Impressionists (too many to list!!) and to Post-Impressionism (Cézanne, Seurat, Gauguin and van Gogh).

What came next?

FAUVISM  (The Wild Ones)  c. 1905

Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlaminck, André Dérain, Kees van Dongen, Raoul Duffy, Georges Braque

They separated colour from its purely descriptive purpose, thus placing it on the canvas as   an independent element.
MOOD projection was displayed as well as SUBJECT.

CUBISM  c.1907

Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Salvador Dali, Paul Cézanne, Juan Gris, Marc Chagall, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger

…leading to Abstract painting

Piet Mondrian, Diego Rivera, Paul Klee, Alberto Giocometti

Later

… David Hockney, Francis Bacon

CezanneSainteVictoire

Paul Cézanne, Mont Saint Victoire, 1904, oil on canvas, 79 x 89 cm, Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA

CezanneSainteVictoire6

Paul Cézanne, Mont Saint Victoire, 1895, oil on canvas, Barnes Foundation, Merion, PA, USA

CezanneChateauNoir

Paul Cézanne, Château noir, 1904, oil on canvas, 74 x 97 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA

GrisPicasso

Juan Gris, Portrait of Pablo Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas, Art Institute, Chicago, USA

GrisGuitar

Juan Gris, Guitar and Music Paper, 1927, oil on canvas, 65 x 81 cm, Saidenberg Gallery, New York, NY, USA

PicassoSelfPortrait

Pablo Picasso, Self Portrait, 1907, oil on canvas, 50 x 46 cm, Narodni Gallery, Prague, Czech Republic

PicassoBreadFruit

Pablo Picasso, Bread with Fruit Dish on a Table, 1909, oil on canvas, 164 x 132 cm, Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland

From 1909 Braque and Picasso worked together to develop Cubism.

Shown below are three examples of their work in collage, which was then used in fine art for the first time.

PicassoGirlMandolin

Pablo Picasso, Girl with a Mandolin, 1910, oil on canvas, 100 x 74 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

PicassoGuitar

Pablo Picasso, Guitar, 1913, collage, 66 x 50 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

BraqueGuitar

Georges Braque, Guitar, collage, 1913, 100 x 65 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

PicassoHorto.jpg

Pablo Picasso, L’Usine, Horta de Ebro, 1909, oil on canvas, 51 x 60, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg

BraqueFishingBoats

Georges Braque, Bateaux de pêche, 1909, oil on canvas, 92 x 73 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA

THE  END?

Cubism was to lead eventually to the de Styl movement of Piet Mondrian

and , thus, the beginning of Abstraction.

The two World Wars, I would suggest, put an end to any further logical discussion on the French art with which we have become so familiar.

Fragmentation seems now to be the order of the day.

MH 17 April 2018, Meeting No 15

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