Picasso and the Dove

Back to Birds in Art

Picasso’s father was a pigeon fancier, and Pablo spent his childhood in Málaga surrounded by the birds. His father was also an artist and taught him how to draw them.

One of the early works in his blue period shows a child holding a dove

PicassoChildDove

Pablo Picasso, L’enfant au pigeon, 1901, oil on canvas, 73 x 54 cm, Private Collection

He included them in this painting from his cubist period

PicassoWomanPigeons

Pablo Picasso, Femme aux pigeons, 1930, pastel on paper applied to canvas, 200 x 185 cm, Centre Pompidou, Paris

The model for this work was Marie-Thérèse Walter, whom he had met in 1927, and who was his partner for more than ten years.

PicassoDove

Pablo Picasso 1881–1973, La Colombe, 1949, lithograph on paper, 57 x 76 cm, Tate Gallery, London

Picasso made the lithograph on 9 January 1949 in the atelier of the printmaker Fernand Mourlot in Paris. It is  a traditional, realistic picture of a pigeon which had been given to him by his great friend Matisse.

The image was used to illustrate the poster of the 1949 Paris Peace Congress and became not only the symbol of the Peace Congresses but also of the ideals of world Communism. The Congrès mondial des Partisans de la paix opened in Paris on 20 April.

PicassoPeacePoster

The day before, Picasso’s partner, Françoise Gilot, had given birth to his fourth child, who was named Paloma, the Spanish word for dove.

PicassoDoveDrawing

Picasso later developed this image into a simple, graphic line drawing that is one of the world’s most recognisable symbols of peace.

PicassoDoves

Pablo Picasso, L’Atelier (Pigeons), 1957

Matisse and Picasso had known each other since 1904 when they were introduced at the Paris salon of Gertrude Stein. They were not only friends but each had a profound influence on one another and their art.

After Matisse died in 1954, Picasso was devastated. He moved his family to a large villa near Cannes,  and painted a series of eleven paintings which he called Studio in the style of his friend, and in homage to him. Many of them feature doves, which were beloved of Matisse.

MatissePhotoPigeons

Henri Cartier-Bresson, Matisse and his pigeons, 1944

BT

 

Sisters in Art

Sisters in Art


BouguereauElderSister

Bouguereau, William Adolphe, La Soeur ainée, 1869, oil on canvas, 160 x 97 cm, Museum of Fine Arts Houston, TX, USA

BouguereauGreve

Bouguereau, William Adolphe, Sur la grève, 1896, oil on canvas, 142 x 92 cm, Museum of Arts, Detroit, MI, USA

BronteSisters

Brontë, Bramwell, Portrait of His Sisters, 1834, National Portrait Gallery, London, UK

LandseerBrontes

Landseer, Edwin?, The Brontë Sisters?, 1835, watercolour, Private Collection (not as yet confirmed)

ChasseriauDeuxSoeurs

Théodore Chassériau, Les deux soeurs, 1843, oil on canvas, 180 x 135 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

MillaisSisters

John Everett Millais, Sisters, 1868, oil on canvas, 108 x 108 cm, Private Collection 

RenoirRoseBleu

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Rose et Bleu, 1881, oil on canvas, 119 x 74 cm, Museu de Arte, São Paulo, Brazil

BT, 31 October 2017, Meeting No 4

The imagination of two Flemish painters of the sixteenth century

The imagination of two Flemish painters of the sixteenth century

BrueghelGriet2

Pieter Brueghel, Dulle Griet, 1562, oil on canvas, 115 x 161 cm, Museum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp , Belgium

BoschGarden

Hieronymous Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1510, oil on oak panels, 220 x 380 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

BT, 17 October 2017, Meeting No 3

The German expressionist painter, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1880-1938

Eight paintings by the German expressionist painter, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1880-1938

 

1 Ernst Kirchner, Badende in Moritzburg, 1926, oil on canvas, 176 x 226 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK
2 Ernst Kirchner, Blick auf Davos, 1924, oil on canvas, 92 x 121 cm, Bündner Kunstmuseum, Chur, Switzerland
3 Ernst Kirchner, Selbstbildnis als Soldat, 1915, oil on canvas, 69 x 61 cm,Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, USA
4 Ernst Kirchner, Blaue Artisten, 1914, oil on canvas, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, Germany
5 Ernst Kirchner, Zwei rote Tänzerinnen, 1914, oil on canvas, 39 x 42 cm, Museo de Bellas Artes, Turin, Italy
6 Ernst Kirchner, Berliner Straßenszene,1913, oil on canvas, 121 x 95 cm, Neue Galerie, New York, NY, USA
7 Ernst Kirchner, Aktbild von Dodo, 1910, oil on canvas, Location unknown
8 Ernst Kirchner, Selbstbildnis mit Model, 1907, oil on canvas, 150 x 100 cm, Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany

 

EH, 17 October 2017, Meeting No 3

Artemisia Gentileschi, 1693-1653

Four paintings by Artemisia Gentileschi, 1593-1653

GentileschiHolofernes

Artemisia Gentileschi, Giuditta che decapita Oloferne, 1620, oil on canvas, 159 x 126 cm, Museo di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy

GentileschiMaidservant

Artemisia Gentileschi, Giuditta con la sua ancella, 1614, oil on canvas, Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy

GentileschiSelfPortrait

Artemisia Gentileschi, Autoritratto in veste di Pittura, 1639, oil on canvas, Royal Collection, UK

GentileschiSusanna

Artemisia Gentileschi, Susanna e i vecchioni, 1610, oil on canvas, 170 x 119, Schloss Weissenstein, Pommersfelden, Germany

And four more versions of the story of Judith & Holophernes

BotticelliJudith

Sandro Botticelli, Ritorno di Giuditta a Betulia, 1470, tempera on wood, 31 x 24, cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

CarravagioJudith

Carravagio, Giuditta e Oloferne, 1602, oil on canvas, Palazzo Barberin, Rome, Italy

CranachJudith1

Lucas Cranach, Judith mit dem Haupt des Holofernes, 1530, oil on beechwood, 75 x 56 cm, Jagdschloss Grunewald, Berlin, Germany

GiorgioniJudith

Giorgione, Giuditta, 1504, oil on canvas, 144 x 66 cm, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia

PB, 17 October 2017, Meeting No 3

Camille Pissarro, La Cueillette des pois

A painting which has been claimed by the inheritors of the original owner

PissarroPeas

Camille Pissarro, La Cueillette des pois, 1887, gouache on canvas, Private Collection

The painting was lent to the Musée Marmottan, by its present American owners, Bruce and Robbi Toll, who had bought it from Christie’s in 1995, for $800,000. The relatives of Simon Bauer, a wealthy businessman whose assets were seized in 1943 by the anti-Semitic wartime French government that collaborated with the Nazis, sued for the return of the painting. A court in May 2017 granted the Bauer descendants request to have the painting impounded, and since then a further decision has been made to have it returned to the Bauer family.

BT, 17 October 2017, Meeting No 3

Henri Matisse

Ten paintings by Matisse, a member of the group known as Les Fauves

MatisseWomanHat

Henri Matisse, Femme au chapeau, 1905, oil on canvas, 81 x 60 cm, Museum of Modern Art, San Fancisco, CA, USA

MatisseBonheurVivre

Henri Matisse, Le Bonheur de vivre, 1906, oil on canvas, 177 x 241 cm, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, PA, USA

MatisseCollineMer

Henri Matisse, Colline, avec vue sur la mer, 1906, oil on canvas, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia, PA, USA

MatisseVueMer

Henri Matisse, Chambre, avec vue sur la mer, 1918, oil on canvas, 73 x 61 cm, Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA

MatisseVaseRoses

Henri Matisse, Vase de roses, 1925, oil on canvas, 55 x 65 cm, Private Collection

MatisseOdalisqueRouge

Henri Matisse, Odalisque, harmonie en rouge, 1927, oil on canvas, 38 x 55 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA

MatisseOdalisqueAssise

Henri Matisse, Odalisque assise, 1928, 73 x 61 cm, Art Museum, Seattle, WA, USA

MatisseOdalisqueAccoudee

Henri Matisse, Odalisque accoudée à une chaise turque, 1928, oil on canvas, 60 x 73 cm, Centre Pompidou, Paris

MatisseAlgerienne

Henri Matisse, L’Algérienne, 1909, oil on canvas, 81 x 65 cm, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France

MatisseAquarium

Henri Matisse, Femme devant un aquarium, 1923, oil on canvas, 80 x 99 cm, Art Institute, Chicago, IL, USA

EH, 2 October 2017, Meeting No2

Berthe Morisot

The inclusion of this post is something of an experiment

It is a PDF of a talk on the life of Berthe Morisot, which I gave to An Aquitaine Historical Society in March 2018

The link below gives the Powerpoint version. It is large, and may take a while to download.

The file shows the slides as they were presented. In the top left hand corner of the screen is an icon, which if pressed reveals my speaker’s notes. Unfortunately, the box is not always big enough to show all the text.

BertheJulie3

Japonisme

VanGoghEar

Vincent van Gogh, , 1889, oil on canvas, 60 x 49 cm, Courtauld Institute, London

The painting shows Vincent posed against a wall on which there is a Japanese print. He was an admirer of the Japanese painting style, and for a time his brother Theo was dealer in the prints which were popular at the time.

European artists  were seeking an alternative style to the strict academic demands.

MonetJaponaise

Claude Monet : La Japonaise, portrait de Madame Monet en kimono, 1876, oil on canvas, 232 x 142 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA

This was Monet’s first wife Camille Doncieux, who died at the age of 33.

BreitnerWhiteKimono

George Hendrik Breitner, Meisje in witte kimono,1894, oil on canvas, 59 x 57 cm, Rijkmuseum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

MonetBassin1

Claude Monet, Le Bassin aux nymphéas, 1899, University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ, USA

During the Kaei era, 1848–1854, after more than 200 years of seclusion, foreign merchant ships of various nationalities began to visit Japan. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan ended a long period of national isolation and became open to imports from the West, including photography and printing techniques. With this new opening in trade, Japanese art and artifacts began to appear in small curiosity shops in Paris and London.

Commodore Matthew Perry visited Japan and was intrumental in forcing Japan to engage in trade with western countries, after two hundred years of isolation, through the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854.

Shown here are a portrait of Perry exaggerating his western features: the oblong face, down-turned eyes, bushy brown eyebrows, and large nose; a comment on what some elements of Japanese society thought of the treaty, and the scene of a meeting between Japanese and American offiicals

The main source of influence of western art was via the Ukiyo-e which is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock prints and paintings of such subjects as female beauties; kabuki actors and sumo wrestlers; scenes from history and folk tales; travel scenes and landscapes; flora and fauna; and erotica. The term ukiyo-e, translates as “pictures of the floating world“, with the insistence that all is transitory.

MoronobuBeauty

Hishikawa Moronobu, Beauty Looking Back, Edo period, 17th Century, National Museum, Tokyo, Japan

KesaiCamellias

Keisai, Camellias with a Bird, 1789, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA

KesaiThrush

Kesai, The Grey Thrush, 1789, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA

HokusaiWave

Katsushika Hokusai, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji: The Great Wave off the Coast of Kanagawa, c1831, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK

Japonisme began as a craze for collecting Japanese art, particularly ukiyo-e. Some of the first samples of ukiyo-e were to be seen in Paris. In about 1856 the French artist Félix Bracquemond first came across a copy of the sketch book Hokusai Mangaat the workshop of his printer, Auguste Delâtre. The sketchbook had arrived in Delâtre’s workshop shortly after Japanese ports had opened to the global economy in 1854; therefore, Japanese artwork had not yet gained popularity in the West. In the years following this discovery, there was an increase of interest in Japanese prints. They were sold in curiosity shops, tea warehouses, and larger shops. Shops such as La Porte Chinoise specialized in the sale of Japanese and Chinese imports. La Porte Chinoise, in particular, attracted artists James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas who drew inspiration from the prints.

JongheAdmiratrice

Gustave Léonard de Jonghe, L’admiratrice du Japon, 1865, oil on canvas, Cummer Museum of Art, Jacksonville, FL, USA

WhistlerPrincess

James McNeill Whistler, The Princess from the Land of Porcelain, 1865, oil on canvas, 202 x 116 cm, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

Mary Cassatt became interested in the Japanese print, and became an important figure in spreading interest in Japonisme, especially in the United States.

CassattCoiffure

Mary Cassatt, The Coiffure, 1890-1891, drypoint and aquatint on laid paper, 43 x 31 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

CassattChildBath

Mary Cassatt, The Child’s Bath. 1893

CassattWomanBathing

Mary Cassatt, Woman Bathing, 1891, drypoint, etching & aquatint, 32 x 25 cm, National Gallery of Canada, Ottowa, Canada

CassattLetter

Mary Cassatt, The Letter, 1890-91

and the print which influenced it

UtamaroCourtesan

Kitagawa Utamaro, The Courtesan Hinazuru, 1794

ManetZola

Edouard Manet, Emile Zola, 1868, oil on canvas, 147 x  114  cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France

On the wall behind Zola, Manet has depicted his own painting, Olympia, 1895, which the writer considered his best work, and an engraving after the Bacchus by Velázquez, which represents the admiration which both Manet and Zola had for Spanish art.

In a prominent position there is a print of the Japanes wrestler Utagawa Kuniaki II .

KuniakiSumo

Utagawa Kuniaki II, Sumô Wrestler Ônaruto Nadaemon of Awa Province, 1860, 38 x 26 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA

To complete the picture, Manet placed a Japanese screen to the left of the sitter

Le père Tanguy was a supplier of paints and an art dealer. Here are two portraits by van Gogh, of him in his shop surrounded by Japanese prints.

VanGoghTanguy2

Vincent van Gogh, Portait du père Tanguy, 1887, oil on canvas, 65 x 51 cm, Musée Rodin, Paris, France

VanGoghTanguy1

Vincent van Gogh, Portait du père Tanguy, 1887-78, oil on canvas, 65 x 51 cm, Private Collection

One of van Gogh’s own works can be seen in the bottom right hand corner.

VanGoghCourtesan

Vincent van Gogh, Le Courtesan, d’après Eisen, 1887-78 , oil on canvas, 101 x 61 c, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

BT, 16 January, 2018

 

Romanticism to Impressionism

List of the PostsRomanticism to Impressionism

The evolution of French painting from Romanticism to Impressionism,
with examples by Delacroix

DelacroixAurelius

Eugène Delacroix, Dernières paroles de l’empereur Marc Aurèle, 1844, oil on canvas, Musée des Beaux Arts, Lyon, France

DelacroixTaillebourg

Eugène Delacroix, La Bataille de Taillebourg, 1837, oil on canvas, Château de Versailles, France
and Gérôme, representing Romanticism

GeromeAmbassadors
Jean-Léon Gérôme, Réception des ambassadeurs siamois par l’empereur Napoléon III au palais de Fontainebleau, 1864, oil on canvas, Château de Versailles, France
The Romantic movement was followed by the Realists, and we were shown examples from Courbet

CourbetBonjour

Gustave Courbet, Bonjour M Courbet, 1854, oil on canvas, Musée Fabre, Montpellier, France

CourbetStoneBreakers

Gustave Courbet, Les Casseurs de pierre, 1849, oil on canvas, destroyed during the Second World War II

and Millet

MilletGlaneuses

Jean-François Millet, Des Glaneuses, 1857, oil on canvas, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France

MilletBatteuses

Jean-François Millet, Batteuses repos (Ruth et Boaz), 1853, oil on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA

The painting which gave Impressionism its name, with the acidic comment by Louis Leroy in Le Charavari:
“Impression, I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it – and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! A preliminary drawing for a wallpaper paper is more finished than this seascape!”

MonetImpression
Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant, 1872, oil on canvas, Musée Marmottan, Paris, France

And finally four paintings by Guillaumin, one of the lesser known impressionists

GuillauminCrozan

Armand Guillaumin, Crozan, Solitude, 1915, oil on canvas

GuillauminEpinay

Armand Guillaumin, Epinay sur Orge, 1884, oil on canvas

GuillauminPongibeaud

Armand Guillaumin, Pongibeaud, hameau de Peschadoires, 1884, oil on canvas

GuillauminRiviere

Armand Guillaumin, Paysage de rivière, 1890, oil on canvas, Museum of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

MH, 16 January 2018, Meeting No 8

 

Animals in Art

Animals in Art

Examples of animals in art, beginning with two sculptures of Sobek, the Egyptian crocodile god
UnknownSobekRelief
Unknown, Sobek, crocodile god, 1st – 3rd Century AD, Temple of Kom Ombo, Egypt

UnknownSobekCrocodile

Unknown, Sobek in his crocodile form, c 1900 BC, Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, Munich

The cave paintings of Lascaux, probably painted 17000 years ago, for reasons unknown

 

UnknownLascaux1
And a scene from the Bayeux tapestry, showing horses and men in movement
UnknownBayeux1
These artists were anonymous, although it could be assumed that some were known in their lifetime.
A watercolour showing a hare in accurate anatomical detail, and now signed with the artist’s monogram
DurerHare
Albrecht Dürer, Feldhase, 1502, Albertina, Vienna, Austria
Moving to the eighteenth century, a painting of the racehorse, Eclipse, by Stubbs. He painted by commission, and built up a reputation for his accurate depictions of prize animals.
StubbsEclipse
George Stubbs, Eclipse At New Market With Groom, 1770, oil on canvas
Later, Landseer became known for his sentimental Victorian portraits of animals
LandseerDistinguished
Edwin Landseer, A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society, 1838, oil on canvas, Tate Britain, London, UK
Franz Marc was serving in the German army when he was killed at Verdun. He was working on the development of camouflage when he died. His cubist style still allows the image to be easily recognised.
MarcFox
Franz Marc, Fuchse, 1913, oil on canvas, Museum Kunst Palast, Dusseldorf, Germany
A last image from Picasso, to be be compared to the scene from the Bayeux tapestry
PicassoCorrida
Pablo Picasso, Corrida, 1934, oil on canvas, Private Collection
TB, 16 January 2018, Meeting No 8

The development of painting after the final Impressionist Exhibition of 1886

The development of painting after the final Impressionist Exhibition of 1886, at which were shown works by Degas, Cassatt, Zandomeneghi, Forain,Gauguin, Monet, Renoir and Pissarro.

Pointillisme appeared, along with what is now known as Post Impressionism.

ZandomeneghiThe

Fernando Zandomeneghi, Le Thé, 1893, pastel on paper

ZandomeneghiReflection

Fernando Zandomeneghi, Reflection, 1895, oil on canvas, 64 x 53 cm, Palazzo del Té, Mantua, Italy

ForainPictureDealer

Jean-Louis Forain, Le Marchand des tableaux, 1920, oil on board, 72 x 59, County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA, USA

ForainTribunal
Jean-Louis Forain, Scène de tribunal, pièces à conviction, 1908, oil on canvas, 61 x 73 cm, Private Collection

CezanneSainteVictoire

Paul Cézanne, Le Mont Sainte Victoire, 1904, oil on canvas, 79 x 89, Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA

CrossProvencal
Henri-Edmond Cross, Paysgage provençal, 1898, oil on canvas, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Köln, Germany

PinchonChoux
Robert-Antoine Pinchon, Le Champ de choux, 1910, oil on canvas, 81 x 100, Private Collection

RedonBuddha

Odilon Redon, Le Buddha, 1906, pastel, 98 x 73 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France

RousseauSurprised

Henri Rousseau, Surpris! ou Tigre dans une tempête tropicale, 1891, oil on canvas, 130 x 162 cm, National Gallery, London, UK

A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884

Georges Seurat, Un dimanche après-midi à la Grande Jatte, 1895, oil on canvas, 205 x 305 cm, Art Institute, Chicago, IL, USA

SignacRochelle

Paul Signac, Entrée de la port de La Rochelle, 1921, oil on canvas, 131 x 162 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France

SignacPetitDejeuner

Paul Signac, Le Petit déjeuner, 1887, oil on canvas, 89 x 115 cm, Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands

VanGoghRoadMenders
Vincent van Gogh, Les Alyscamps or Les Paveurs de St-Rémy-de-Provence, 1889, oil on canvas, 73 x 92 cm, Phillips Collection, Washington, DC, USA

VuillardStriped

Edouard Vuillard, Femme dans une robe rayée, 1895, oil on canvas, 88 x 84 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

MH, 23 January, 2018, Meeting No 9

The beginnings of abstract art

The beginnings of abstract art

with an emphasis on the work of Kandinsky. Other artists discussed were Marianne von Werefin, Franz Marc, August Macke and Paul Klee

WerefinSelfPortrait1

Marianne von Werefin, Selbsporträt, 1910, oil on canvas, 51 x 34 cm, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany

MarcCow

Franz Mark, Gelb Kuh, 1911, oil on canvas, 141 x 189 cm, Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY, USA

MackeWindow

August Macke, Study Of A Bright Shop Window, 1913, oil on canvas, location unknown

KleePflanzung

Paul Klee, Rhythmen einer Pflanzung, 1925, oil on cloth, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France

KandinskiReiter

Wassily Kandinski, Der Blau Reiter, 1903, oil on canvas, 52 x 55 cm, Collection E.G. Bührle, Zürich, Switzerland

 

KandinskiRidingCouple

Wassily Kandinski, Riding Couple, date unknown, oil on canvas, 55 x 51 cm, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany

KandinskiArcher

Wassily Kandinski, Picture with an Archer, 1903, oil on canvas, 175 x 145 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA

KandinskiCompVII

Wassily Kandinski, Composition VII, 1913, oil on canvas, 201 x 302 cm, Tretiakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia

KandinskiCircles

Wassily Kandinski, Colour Study. Squares with Concentric Circles, date unknown, watercolour, gouache and crayon on paper, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich, Germany

MC, 23 January, 2018, Meeting No 9

The Acceptance In Lieu  of Inheritance Tax Scheme in the UK

The Acceptance In Lieu  of Inheritance Tax Scheme in the UK

The scheme allows people to pay their inheritance tax bill by transferring important cultural, scientific or historic objects to the nation. This is one example.

MillaisRuskin

John Everitt Millais, John Ruskin, 1854, oil on canvas, 79 x 68 cm, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK

This is an account of the acquisition of the painting by Sherna Noah, The Independent, Monday 20 May 2013

Ashmolean Museum acquires Millais portrait of John Ruskin which led to the end of his marriage to Effie Gray

A painting of John Ruskin which led to the end of the art critic’s marriage has been acquired by the Ashmolean Museum.
The portrait by John Everett Millais has been described as one of the most important pre-Raphaelite paintings that remained in private hands.
The Victorian era love triangle began when Millais fell in love with the sitter’s wife Effie, while he painted Ruskin and holidayed with the couple in the Trossachs in Scotland in 1853.
The Ruskins’ marriage was annulled the next year on the grounds that it had not been consummated and Millais went on to marry Effie.
The couple had eight children together but Effie’s reputation never recovered and she was shunned by polite society.
Finishing the painting was to become for Millais “the most hateful task I have ever had to perform”.
The love triangle is the subject of a film, Effie Gray, written by Emma Thompson and starring Dakota Fanning, Tom Sturridge and Julie Walters, set for release later this year.
Ruskin gave the portrait, which was not exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1854 despite expectations, to a friend and it was bought by the late owner for a record price at auction house Christie’s in 1965.
The painting has been on loan to the Ashmolean, in Oxford, since 2012 and has been allocated to the museum by Arts Council England under the Acceptance in Lieu of Inheritance scheme.
Ashmolean Museum director Christopher Brown said: “We are hugely grateful to the Arts Council for their support in allocating this extraordinary picture to the Ashmolean.
“The portrait is of supreme importance for the study of 19th-century British art and it will be shown with the Museum’s world-renowned Pre-Raphaelite collection.”
Arts Council England chair Peter Bazalgette said: “It’s wonderful that such a celebrated portrait is now on permanent public display at the Ashmolean Museum.
“This was one of the finest pieces at the Tate’s sell-out exhibition on the Pre-Raphaelites, and can now be admired by even more people.”
Culture Minister Ed Vaizey said: “The Acceptance in Lieu scheme has seen literally thousands of treasures enter our national collections since its inception. Millais’ John Ruskin portrait has the most fascinating history, and I’m delighted this stunning work has found a new home in the Ashmolean Museum. ”

NG, 23 , Meeting No 9

Ernest Hoschedé, 1837-1891

Ernest Hoschedé was a business man and art collector.
He was a patron of Monet, and became a close friend. He married Alice, a relatively wealthy woman of Belgian origin, and they had six chidren.
Monet had married Camille Doncieux, and they had two children. The two families spent time together, in an atmosphere of friendly companionship.
Ernest, who had an extravagant lifestyle, became bankrupt in 1877, and Monet, although financially affected by the event, invited the Hoschedé family to live with him and Camille, while Ernest struggled to find employment in Paris.
Camille died in 1879, and some time afterwards Claude and Alice began an affair. They married a year after Ernest’s death in 1891.
Blanche Hoschedé-Monet, the daughter of Alice, became a pupil of Monet, and married his son Jean. She became largely responsible for the house and gardens at Giverny after Claude’s death.
Another daughter, Suzanne, married the American painter Theodore Earl Butler, who often stayed with the family at Giverny.

BaudryHoschede

Paul Baudry, Portrait d’Ernest Hoschedé, oil on canvas, 130 x 99 cm, Private Collection

CarolusDuranHoschede

Carolus-Duran, Portrait de Mme Hoschedé, 1878, oil on canvas, 56 x 38 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA

ManetHoschedeMarthe
Edouard Manet, Ernest Hoschedé et sa fille Marthe, 1876, oil on canvas, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

MonetFemmeOmbrelle

Claude Monet, La Femme à l’ombrelle, Camille Doncieux et son fils, 1875, oil on canvas, 100 x 81 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

MonetJaponaise
Claude Monet, La Japonaise, portrait de Madame Monet en kimono, 1876, oil on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA, USA

MonetCamilleMort

Claude Monet, Camille sur son lit de mort, 1879, oil on canvas, 90 x 68 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

MonetBlanche

Claude Monet, Blanche Hoschedé, 1880, oil on canvas, 38 x 38 cm, Musée des Beaux Arts, Rouen, France

MonetChevalet
Claude Monet, Blanche Hoschedé à son chevalet, Suzanne Hoschedé lisant, 1887, oil on canvas, 91 x 98 cm, County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA, USA

SisleyJardinsGiverny
Alfred Sisley, Le Jardin de M. Hoschedé à Montgeron, 1881, oil on canvas, 56 x 54 cm, Pouchkine Museum, Moscow, Russia

HoschedeMonetSaule
Blanche Hoschedé-Monet, Le Saule, la roseraie et les nymphéas à Giverny, oil on canvas, Private Collection

HoschedeMonetMeule
Blanche Hoschedé-Monet, Meule de foin à Giverny, oil on canvas, Private Collection

HoschedeMonetPeupliers

Blanche Hoschedé-Monet, Peupliers d’Ajoux à Giverny, oil on canvas, Private Collection

HoschedeMonetSousBois
Blanche Hoschedé-Monet, Sous bois, oil on canvas, Private Collection

BT, 23 January, 2018, Meeting No 9

 

 

 

 

The early days of ballooning and the art which it produced

The early days of ballooning and the art which it produced.

Apart from the illustrations, which were largely reproduced in newspapers of the time, one artist stood out: Julius Caesar Ibbetson, so called because he was born by caesarian section, 1759-1817.
The Montgolfier brothers, and Sophie Blanchard, a woman balloonist, who was killed on a flight in 1819, were also discussed.

IbbetsonBiggins

Julius Caesar Ibbetson, George Biggins’ Ascent in Lunardi’s Balloon, 1785, oil on canvas, 51 x 61 cm, Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany

IbbetsonBella

Julius Caesar Ibbetson, Bella Ibbetson (née Thompson), 1803, National Portrait Gallery, London, UK

IbbetsonSelfPortrait

Julius Caesar Ibbetson, Self Portrait, 1804, oil on canvas, National Portrait Gallery, London, UK

 

 

At Annonay 4 June 1783,  the Montgolfiers brothers gave the first demonstration of a public flight (centre). The flight covered 2 km, lasted 10 minutes, and had an estimated altitude of 1,600-2,000 m.

Ascension du Sieur a la Citadelle de Strasbourg, 1784 (right). Colored etching of a balloon ascending over a city in 1784. Pierre and Degarbiel built and flew this Montgolfier, the first to ascend from Strasbourg, May 26, 1784. The balloon stood 76 feet tall and 160 feet in circumference.

Sophie Blanchard, Ascent from the Champ de Mars, 24 June 1810 (left)

TS, 6 February 2018, Meeting No 10

Félix Tournachon, 1829-1910, known as Nadar

 

NadarPhoto

Self portrait

Félix Tournachon, known as Nadar, 1820-1910

He was a balloonist and photographer, and this presentation was inspired by the previous talk on ballooning.

Three studio based photographs of Nadar as a balloonist

ManetExpo67

Edouard Manet, Vue de l’Exposition Universelle de Paris de 1867, 1867, oil on canvas, 108 x 196 cm, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, Norway

An early representation of a hot air balloon in art. The balloon, in the top right hand corner, appears to be tethered.

PuvisBallon

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Le ballon, 1870, oil on canvas, 137 x 87 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, France.

During the Franco-Prusssian War and the Siege of Paris, 1870-71, sixty five balloons were released from the city, with letters and news.

PhotoBallonNeptune

Le ballon Le Neptune sur la place Saint-Pierre, photographié par Nadar, 1870

Nadar was instrumental in organising balloon flights carrying mail to reconnect the besieged Parisians with the rest of the world, thus establishing the world’s first airmail service.

It was at Nadar’s studio, 35 Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, that the first Impressionist exhibition took place

PhotoCapucines

It hasn’t changed much: this photo was taken in March 2014

PhotoCapucines2

The cover of the catalogue of the first Impressionis Exhibition of 1874

ImpressionistCatalogue

And… just for fun, because they are balloons, of a sort…

KoonsDogPainting

Jeff Koons, Balloon Dog, 1995-98, oil on canvas, 259 x 303 cm

KoonsDogSculp

Jeff Koons, Balloon Dog, 1994-2000, mirror-polished stainless steel with transparent colour coating, 307 x 363 x 114 cm

BT, 20 February 2018, Meeting No 11

Rafael Zabaleta

Rafael Zabaleta, 1907-1960

Zabaleta was born in Quesada, Jaén, Spain in 1907. In 1925, he travelled to Madrid to study at the San Fernando School of Fine Arts. After the Spanish Civil War, charges were brought against him and he spent a brief period at a jail in Jaén. During this period, a series of drawings begun three years earlier on the conflict were seized. Starting from 1940, he began a new stage of his life and painting, more original and less influenced by academic painting, with country and mountain themes prominent. During his travels to Paris, Zabaleta met Picasso and other relevant Spanish painters of the time. In 1960, he exhibited a series of 16 oil paintings and ten drawings at the Spanish pavilion in the Venice Biennale, his most important exhibition. He died in 1960.

ZabaletaSentadas

Rafael Zabaleta, Dos mujeres sentadas, 1935, oil on canvas, Museo de Rafael Zabaleta en Quesada

ZabaletaAuto1

Rafael Zabaleta, Autoretrato

ZabaletaAuto2

Rafael Zabaleta, Autoretrato

ZabaletaAuto3

Rafael Zabaleta, Autoretrato

ZabaletaAutoModelaBodegon

Rafael Zabaleta, Autoretrato y modela con bodegón, 1955, oil on canvas, 100 x 80 cm

ZabaletaCampesinas

Rafael Zabaleta, Dos campesinas, 1952, oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm, Museo de Rafael Zabaleta en Quesada

ZabaletaEspigadoras

Rafael Zabaleta, Espigadoras, 1954, oil on canvas, Museo Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain

ZabaletaInteriorDesnuda

Rafael Zabaleta, Interior con desnuda, 1956, oil on canvas, 80 x 101 cm

ZabaletaMujerPaisaje

Rafael Zabaleta, Mujer y paisaje, 1943, oil on canvas, Private Collection

BT, 20 February, Meeting No 11

 

 

Edouard Manet, Part 1

…his life up to the suicide of Alexandre

Edward Manet, 1832-1883

Manet was born on 23 January 1832 at 5, rue Bonaparte, known at the time as rue des Petits Augustins, in the area of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, of parents who were affluent bourgeois.
His father, Auguste Manet, 1796-1862, was an official in the Ministère de la Justice and a judge, and his mother, Eugénie-Désirée Manet, née Fournier, 1811-1884, was the daughter of Joseph Fournier, 1761-1824, a wealthy merchant in Gothenburg, Sweden, and Adélaïde Elise de la Noue. She was the goddaughter of Crown Prince Bernadotte of Sweden. The couple were married in 1831, a year before Edouard’s birth. Auguste and Désirée had two more sons, Eugène Manet, 1833-1892, who married Berthe Morisot, and Gustave Manet, 1835-1884, who later became an inspector of prisons. Edouard’s paternal grandfather had also been a judge, and Auguste had plans for Edouard to study law as well.

ManetMMeAManet

Edouard Manet, Portrait de M. et Mme Auguste Manet, 1860, oil on canvas, 111 × 91 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

The portrait of his parents was painted by Manet in 1860, when his father was 64 and his mother 49. Even taking into account the formal standards of the day, they are not represented as a happy couple. Auguste had an affair with Suzanne Leenhoff, whom he had employed to give piano lessons to his sons, and may have been the father of her son, Léon. He died of syphilis, although this was never mentioned in the family or admitted publicly. The painting was presented at the Salon of 1861, together with Le chanteur espagnol. It served to reassure his parents that he had been not mistaken in leaving the navy and pursuing a career in art.
Manet painted his mother in mourning dress, three years after the death of his father. She outlived her son by a year.

ManetMmeManet

Edouard Manet, Mme Auguste Manet, 1865, oil on canvas, 98 x 80 cm, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA

Between 1838 and 1841 Manet attended the Institut run by Abbé Poiloup in Vaugirard, a suburb in the XVe arrondissement. Although he was unhappy there, he was just as unhappy at home. Later he attended the Collège Rollin, until 1848, and it was here that he met his lifelong friend Antonin Proust, who later became Ministre de Beaux Arts, and who was instrumental in ensuring that Manet was awarded the Légion d’Honneur shortly before his death.
Manet’s childhood was austere, but thanks to his mother’s eccentric art loving brother, Edmond Fournier, 1800-1865, about whom little is known, he was taken to the Louvre, often with Antonin, where he saw the paintings by Goya, El Greco and Velázquez and began to appreciate their work. He also listened to the discussions between Edmond, who was a monarchist, and his father, a fervent republican. Fournier, loyal to Louis-Philippe, resigned his commission in the army in 1848.
In 1848, Manet failed to gain entrance to the Ecole Navale, but took advantage of the alternative of qualifying by sailing from Le Havre to Rio de Janeiro as a cadet. One day after his embarkation, Louis-Philippe was overthrown and Louis Napoléon became president of the Republic. Although he was bored by the voyage and his stay in Brazil, he later admitted that the sea and the light had been an influence in his evolution as a painter. On his return, he failed again in his attempt to enter the college. Present on this voyage was Adolphe Pontillon, who later married Edma Morisot, the sister of Berthe.

ManetPierrotDansant

Edouard Manet, Pierrot Dansant, 1849, ink on paper, 27 x 20 cm, Private Collection

It was shortly after his return in 1849 that he met Suzanne Leenhoff, an accomplished musician whom Auguste had hired to give piano lessons to his younger sons. Eugénie was interested in music, and it may have been she who employed Suzanne. Manet married her in 1863, and although it is possible that he, and not Auguste, was the father of Léon, he never recognised him as his son.

ManetPiano

Edouard Manet, Mme Manet au piano, 1867-68, oil on canvas, 38 x 46 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

ManetSuzanne1

Edouard Manet, Madame Manet, Suzanne, 1874–76, oil on canvas, Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, CA

The following year he entered the studio of Thomas Couture, along with Antonin Proust, where he remained for six years. He became frustrated with the methods of Couture and took time off to visit the Netherlands in 1852, and Italy, with his brother Eugène and Emile Ollivier in 1853. In the same year he travelled to Prague, Vienna, Munich and Dresden. He visited Italy again in 1857.
On his return he went to see Eugène Delacroix in his studio to ask for advice, and for permission to copy La Barque de Dante, Delacroix was generous in his advice and ecouragement; and Manet attended his funeral in 1863.
During his apprenticeship he learned the techniques of painting and spent time copying the works of the masters in the Louvre and in the museums he visited on his travels. During his time in the Louvre he became friends with Henri Fantin-Latour and also of Edgar Degas, who drew some sketches of him. Degas later gave the sketches of Manet to Berthe Morisot, as a wedding present.

Edgar Degas, Edouard Manet en buste, 1864-1865, etching, drypoint and aquatint, on off-white wove paper, 31 x 22 cm, Art Institute, Chicago

Edgar Degas, Manet assis, tourné à gauche, c1864, black chalk on vellum, 33 x 23 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Edgar Degas, Portrait d’ Edouard Manet, c1866-1868, drawing, Musee D’Orsay, Paris

Manet drew some inspiration from the work of Couture, notably from his portraits. Couture asked his opinion of Portrait de Mlle Poinsot, which he painted in 1853.
Manet finally broke away from Couture in 1856, when he set up his own studio in rue Lavoisier, with his friend Albert de Balleroy. In this studio Manet had employed Alexandre, a fifteen year old boy, to clean his brushes and tidy the place. One day Manet had scolded him for his bad work, and had returned to find that Alexandre had hanged himself from a hook in a cupboard. Manet had already used him as a model for L’Enfant aux cerises or L’Enfant à la toque rouge, and the suicide had a profound effect on him. His friend Charles Baudelaire wrote a piece entitled “La Corde”, expressing his horror at finding the body.

ManetGarconCerises

Edouard Manet, Garçon aux cerises, 1858, oil on canvas, 55 x 65 cm, Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon

END OF PART 1

Other works included in the talk

Edouard Manet, Berthe Morisot au bouquet de violettes, 1872, oil on canvas, 55 x 38 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Edouard Manet, Nature morte, bouquet de violettes, 1872, oil on canvas. 22 x 27 cm, Private Collection
Edouard Manet, Auguste Manet, 1860, drawing, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Edouard Manet, Portrait d’Antonin Proust, 1880, oil on canvas, 129 x 159 cm, Museum of Art, Toledo, OH
Anders Zorn, Portrait of Antonin Proust, 1888, oil on canvas, 106 x 136 cm, Private Collection
Kim Hong-do, Dancing Boy, from Scenes from Daily Life, (detail), 19th Century, Korea
Edouard Manet, La Lecture, c1868, oil on canvas, 61 x 73 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Edouard Manet, La Nymphe surprise, 1861, oil on canvas, 122 x 144 cm, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires
Edouard Manet, Portrait de Madame Manet sur un canapé bleu, 1874, pastel on brown paper applied on canvas, 49 x 60 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Edouard Manet, Garçon à l’épée, 1861, oil on canvas, 131 x 93 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Edouard Manet, Les Bulles de savon, 1867, 100 × 81 cm, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon
Edouard Manet, Portrait de Léon Leenhoff, 1868, oil on canvas, 85 x 71 cm, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm
Edouard Manet, Déjeuner à l’atelier, 1868, oil on canvas, 118 x 154 cm, Neue Pinakothek, Munich
Thomas Couture, Autoportrait, Museum of Art, New Orleans, LA
Thomas Couture, Les Romains de la décadence, 1847, 472 × 772 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Eugène Delacroix, La Barque de Dante et Virgil, 1822, oil on canvas, 189 x 246 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris
Edouard Manet, Copie de La Barque de Dante d’Eugène Delacroix, 1854-58, oil on canvas, 38 x 46 cm, Musée des Beaux Arts, Lyon
Titian, Venere di Urbino, 1538, oil on canvas, 119 x 165 cm, Galleria degli Uffizzi, Florence
Edouard Manet, Copie de Vénus d’Urbin par Titien, 1858, oil on canvas, 24 x 37 cm, Private Collection
Edouard Manet, Olympia, 1863, oil on canvas, 130 x 190 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Henri Fantin-Latour, Hommage à Delacroix, 1864, oil on canvas, 160 x 250 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris
Henri Fantin-Latour, Un atelier aux Batignolles, 1870, oil on canvas, 204 × 273 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

BT, 20 February 2018, Meeting No 11

 

Tamara de Lempicka

Tamara de Lempicka, 1898-1980

was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States. She is best known for her polished Art-Deco portraits of aristocrats and the wealthy, and for her highly stylized paintings of nudes.

Born in Warsaw, Lempicka briefly moved to Saint Petersburg where she married a prominent Polish lawyer, then travelled to Paris. She studied painting with Maurice Denis and André Lhote. Her style was a blend of late, refined cubism and the neoclassical style, particularly inspired by the work of Jean-Dominique Ingres. She was an active participant in the artistic and social life of Paris between the Wars. In 1928 she became the mistress of wealthy art collector from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Baron Raoul Kuffner. After the death of his wife in 1933, the Baron married Lempicka in 1934, and thereafter she became known in the press as “The Baroness with a Brush.”

Following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, she and her husband moved to the United States and she painted celebrity portraits, as well as still-lifes and, in the 1960s, some abstract paintings. Her work was out of fashion after World War II, but made a comeback in the late 1960s, with the rediscovery of Art Deco. She moved to Mexico in 1974, where she died in 1980. At her request, her ashes were scattered over the Popocatapetl volcano.

LempickaBugatti

Tamara de Lempicka, Self Portrait, Tamara in a Green Bugatti, 1926, oil on board, 35 x 27 cm, Private Collection

Commissioned by the German fashion magazine ‘Die Dame for the cover of the magazine, to celebrate the independence of women. It is one of the most best-known examples of Art Deco portrait painting. Incidentally, Tamara never owned a Bugatti.

LempickaTadeusz

Tamara de Lempicka, Portrait de Tadeusz de Lempicki, 1928, oil on canvas

A portrait of her first husband

LempickaKizetteBalcony

Tamara de Lempicka, Kizette on the Balcony, 1927, oil on canvas

LempickaJeuneFille

Tamara de Lempicka, Portrait d’une Jeune Fille, 1929, oil on board, 27 x 22 cm, Private Collection

Although Tamara painted her daughter Kizette on numerous occasions, she neglected her throughout her childhood. When she became ill, Kizette came to live with her and cared for her until her death.

LempickaAndromeda

Tamara de Lempicka, Andromeda, 1928, oil on canvas, Private Collection

She was notoriously bisexual and promiscuous

LempickaGirls

Tamara de Lempicka, The Girls, 1928, oil on canvas

LempickaMusicienne

Tamara de Lempicka, La musicienne, 1929, oil on canvas, 116 x 73 cm, Private Collection

LempickaDrBoucard

Tamara de Lempicka, Portrait of Dr Boucard, 1931, oil on canvas

LempickaMmeBoucard

Tamara de Lempicka, Portrait of Mme Boucard, 1931, oil on canvas

Many of her paintings, including all except the first here, show a cubist style cityscape in the background

BT, 6 March, Meeting No 12

Grant Wood

Grant Wood, 1891-1942

WoodAmGothic

Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930, oil on beaverboard, 78 x 65 cm, Art Institute, Chicago IL, USA

WoodSelfPortrait

Grant Wood, Self Portrait, 1923

WoodPlaid

Grant Wood, Plaid Sweater, 1931, oil on masonite, University of Iowa Museum, Iowa City, IA, USA

WoodProductChecker

Grant Wood, The Product Checker, 1925, oil on canvas, 61 x 45 cm, Museum of Art, Cedar Rapids, IA, USA

WoodSpringPlowing

Grant Wood, Spring Plowing, 1941, oil on masonite, Private Collection

WoodYoungCorn

Grant Wood, Young Corn, 1931, oil on masonite, 60 x 75 cm, Museum of Art, Cedar Rapids, IA, USA

WoodHaying

Grant Wood, Haying, 1939, oil on masonite, 53 x 58 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA

WoodFallPlowing

Grant Wood, Fall Plowing, 1931, oil on canvas, 76 x 103 cm, The Figge Art Museum, Davenport, IA, USA

RA, 6 March 2018, Meeting No 12

A Nest of Gentle Artists

A Nest of Gentle Artists

A Nest of Gentle Artists – Modernism in Hampstead

HepworthFamilyGroup

Barbara Hepworth, Family Group, 1953, oil and drawing on board, 30 x 22 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK

HepworthCurlew

Barbara Hepworth, Stringed Figure (Curlew) (Version I), 1956, brass with strings

HepworthWingedFigure

Barbara Hepworth, Winged Figure, 1963, aluminium, H 580 cm, John Lewis, Hollies Street, London, UK

HepworthMarbleForm

Barbara Hepworth, Marble Form, 1954, oil and pencil on hardboard, 77 x 50 cm, The Whitworth, Manchester, UK

HepworthCrucifixion

Barbara Hepworth, Construction (Crucifixion), 1966, Cathedral Cloisters, Salisbury, UK

GaboLinearConstruction

Naum Gabo, Linear Construction, 1943

HitchensTriangle

Ivon Hitchens, Triangle to Beyond, 1936, oil on canvas and wood, 76 x 51 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK

JacksonHepworthPainting735

Arthur Jackson-Hepworth, Painting 7/35, 1935, oil on canvas, 46 x 36 cm, Private Collection

MondrianCompositionA

Piet Mondrian, Composition II, 1920, oil on canvas

MooreStringedFigure

Henry Moore, Stringed Figure, 1960, bronze and elastic string, 27 x 34 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK

NicholsonFirstAbstract

Ben Nicholson, First Abstract, 1924, oil and graphite on canvas, Tate Gallery, Saint Ives, UK

NicholsonPainting1937

Ben Nicholson, Painting 1937, 1937, oil on canvas, 51 x 64, National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh, UK

NicholsonVerticalSeconds

Ben Nicholson, Vertical Seconds, 1953, oil on canvas, 76 x 42 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK

PiperPainting1935

John Piper, Painting 1935, 1935, oil on canvas

PiperBackGardens

John Piper, Back Gardens, Burgundy, 1958, oil on canvas, 64 x 76 cm

SkeapingFish

John Skeaping, Fish, 1930, ironstone on serpentine base, 14 x 27 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK

StephensonPainting

John Cecil Stephenson, Painting, 1937, tempera on canvas, 71 x 91 cm, Tate Gallery, London, UK

Henry Moore & Barbara Hepworth were at Leeds School of Art then the Royal College of Art, 1920-26, and visited Europe. Hepworth met John Skeaping and they were married in Florence in 1925. They returned to London, and in 1928, moved to 7 The Mall, Parkhill Road, Hampstead, where they were neighbours of Henry and Irena Moore, and where Hepworth remained until 1939.

In June 1928, they shared an exhibition at the Beaux Arts Gallery with John Skeaping and William Morgan. Ben Nicholson  involved in development of Modernist movement in UK, and in 1924 joined, then took over Seven and  Five Society, with Henry Moore.  Later, they were joined by John Piper, renaming the group Seven and Five Abstract Group, in 1935.

In 1931 Hepworth and Skeaping spent a holiday in Norfolk with Henry & Irena Moore, and Ben Nicholson and  Ivon Hitchens, but later separated. The next year Hepworth exhibited  with the Seven and Five Society. She was a member until it was dissolved in 1935.

During the  30s artists  began to flee central Europe.  Many moved to London and settled in Hampstead, including Gropius,  Breuer, Naum Gabo, Moholy-Nagy, Erni, and Ozenfant.

In 1933 Hepworth and Nicholson met Brancusi at his studio in Paris, visited Arp’s studio at Meudon,  and travelled to Avignon and Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. On their return to Paris, they visited Picasso. They were Invited by Herbin and Hélion to become a member of the Paris based group Abstraction-Création, with which Hepworth exhibited in 1934. In September of that year, there was a short visit to Dieppe, to see Braque at nearby Varengeville, and in October they shared an exhibition with Ben Nicholson at Alex Reid & Lefevre Ltd, London.

Nicholson and Hepworth met Mondrian in 1935 and Kandinsky. Mondrian joined them in the late 30s, and described them as his best friends. Hepworth’s Construction Crucifixion was a homage to Mondrian

The Abstract & Concrete exhibition opened in Oxford in February, 1936, and included work by Mondrian, Kandinsky, Arp, Giacometti, Miró, Calder, Moholy-Nagy, Hélion, Nicholson, Hepworth, Moore and Gabo.  Hepworth and Nicholson met Arp in London on the occasion of the International Surrealist exhibition.

TB, 6 March 2018, Meeting No 12

 

Doris Hatt, 1890-1969

Dear everyone! Greetings from the chilly outpost of your empire!
I came across Doris Hatt

HattPhotoPortrait

by accident when a local SW England gallery sent me details of an exhibition of her work and I was very taken with them. I had never heard of her despite living for some years very near her modernist house in Clevedon

HattPhotoHouse

where she lived from the late 1920s. By then she had studied art at the RCA, Goldsmiths and then, more significantly, Paris, where she fell under the spell of Braque, Picasso and Leger. In a typically English way she adapted and softened their work. Her friend Le Corbusier certainly influenced the style of her house which she built in the 1930s. She planned her work meticulously, simplifying but emphasising the essential elements. This style was used extensively in the mid C20 on dust wrappers round books. Here are three of her works. if I can manage it I’ll post a Prampolini, a Picasso and a Léger for comparison. Her lifelong partner was the weaver Margery MackSmith and the two of them promoted art and Communism in the pubs and meeting places in Clevedon. They must have seemed VERY radical in such a sleepy seaside town! She never developed a connection with any London galleries so did not get as much publicity as she I think she deserved but she was an interesting and original artist until her death in 1965. I hope you enjoy the paintings too!

HattCafeLait

Doris Hatt, Still Life, Café au Lait, 1957, oil on board, 51 x 62 cm, Private Collection

HattParisianStreet

Doris Hatt, Parisian Street, 1955, 13 x 10 cm, Private Collection

HattTower

Doris Hatt, Tower of London, 1920s, watercolour, Private Collection

Later,

Here are the three pictures for comparison!
Firstly Enrico Pramplini’s Mussolini’s Blackshirts, then Picasso’s The Factory then Ferdinand Leger’s Three Women

Here are the three pictures for comparison!
Firstly Enrico Prampolini’s Mussolini’s Blackshirts, then Picasso’s The Factory, then Fernand Léger’s Three Women

PrampoliniCamicieNere

Enrico Prampolini, Camicie Nere, 1933

 

PicassoHorto

Pablo Picasso, L’Usine, Horta de Ebro, 1909, oil on canvas, 51 x 60 cm, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia

LegerTroisFemmes

Fernand Léger, Trois femmes, 1922, oil on canvas, 184 x 252 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

LG 25 January 2018

 

Frida Kahlo, Niña con collar

This is a long lost painting by Frida Kahlo, dating from 1929.

It is known that it was passed to one of her friends who had looked after her, by her husband Diego Rivera in 1955. This person lived in California, and at the age of ninety indicated that she wanted to sell it

KahloCollar

Frida Kahlo, Niña con collar, 1929, oil on canvas, 57 x 46 cm, Private Collection

BT 3 April, 2017, Meeting No 14

La Dame de Brassempouy

Sometimes known as Dame à la Capuche,  La Dame de Brassempouy, is a fragmentary ivory figurine from the Upper Palaeolithic. It was discovered in a cave at Brassempouy, France in 1892. About 25,000 years old, it is one of the earliest known realistic representations of a human face.

UnknownBrassempouy

La Dame de Brassempouy, c25000 BC, mammoth ivory, H3.5 cm, Musée d’Archéologie nationale, Saint-Germain-En-Laye, France.

La Dame de Brassempouy was discovered in the Grotte du Pape, near the village of Brassempouy , Landes, in 1894, accompanied by at least eight other human figures. These may be an example of unfinished work, as if the artist or artists carved several figurines at the same time. Unfortunately archaeology was in its infancy and much of the site was rendered useless for scietific purposes.

UnknownBrassempouy2

La Figurine à la ceinture, found at Brassempouy

BrassempouyStamp

French stamp of 1976

BT 3 April, 2017, Meeting No 14

Joaquín Sorolla, 1863-1923

Joaquín Sorolla was born in Valencia. He and his sister were ophaned when he was two, when both parents died, probably of cholera. He was brought up by an aunt and showed early talent as a painter.

After completing his military service and study in Madrid and Rome, he lived in Paris, where he came into contact with modern painting.

SorollaAutoretrato2

Joaquín Sorolla, Autoretrato, 1909, oil on canvas, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaAutoretrato1

Joaquín Sorolla, Autoretrato, 1904, oil on canvas, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

In 1888, Sorolla returned to Valencia to marry Clotilde García del Castillo, whom he had first met in 1879, while working in her father’s studio. They had three children.

SorollaClotilde

Joaquín Sorolla, Retrato de Clotilde, 1891, oil on canvas, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaClotildeSofa

Joaquín Sorolla, Clotilde sentada en un sofá, 1910, oil on canvas, 178 x 107 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaHijos

Joaquín Sorolla, Mis hijos, 1904, oil on canvas, 107 x 176 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaGarden

Joaquín Sorolla, Mi esposa y mis hijas en el jardín, 1910, oil on canvas, Private Collection

He bgan to make his name through his depictions of social problems of the day, including the treatment of prostitutes

SorollaMargarita

Joaquín Sorolla, Otra Margarita, 1892, oil on canvas, 129 x 198 cm, Washington University Gallery of Art, Saint Louis, MO, USA

SorollaBlancas

Joaquín Sorolla, Trata de Blancas, 1894, oil on canvas, 167 x 195 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

He was  the first artist to draw attention to the epidemic of polio which had ravaged the province of Valencia

SorollaHerencia

Joaquín Sorolla, Triste Herencia, 1899, oil on canvas, 210 x 285 cm, Fundación Bancaja, Valencia, Spain

SorollaHerencia2

Joaquín Sorolla, Study for Triste Herencia, 1899, oil on canvas, 40 x 58, Private Collection

His style became freer, and he was able to capture the light of the beaches of the Mediterranean coast, often using his family as models

SorollaMomento

Joaquín Sorolla, Capturando el momento, Biarritz, 1906, oil on canvas, 62 x 94 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaPlaya

Joaquín Sorolla, María en la Playa de Biarritz or Contraluz, Biarritz, 1906, oil on canvas, 63 x 93 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaPaseo

Joaquín Sorolla, Paseo a orillas del mar, 1909, oil on canvas, 205 x 200 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

as well as scenes of daily life

SorollaPlayaValencia

Joaquín Sorolla, La playa de Valencia, 1908, oil on canvas, 50 x 66 cm, Private Collection

SorollaCaballo

Joaquín Sorolla, El baño del caballo, 1909, oil on canvas, 205 x 250 cm, Museo Sorolla, Madrid, Spain

SorollaChicos

Joaquín Sorolla, Chicos en la playa, 1910, oil on canvas, 118 x 185 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

SorollaIdyll

Joaquín Sorolla, Idyll, Jávea, 1901, oil on canvas

Early in 1911, Sorolla visited the United States for a second time, and exhibited at the Saint Louis Art Museum and  at the Art Institute of Chicago. Later that year Sorolla met Archie Huntington in Paris and signed a contract to paint a series of oils on life in Spain. These 14 magnificent murals, in the Hispanic Society of America building in Manhattan, range from 12 to 14 feet in height, and total 227 feet in length, dominated the later years of Sorolla’s life.

Despite the immensity of the canvases, Sorolla painted all but one en plein air, and travelled to the specific locales to paint them: Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Elche, Seville, Andalusia, Extremadura, Galicia, Guipuzcoa, Castile, Leon, and Ayamonte, at each site painting models posed in local costume. Each mural celebrated the landscape and culture of its region, panoramas composed of throngs of laborers and locals. By 1917 he was, by his own admission, exhausted. He completed the final panel in July 1919.

SorollaTiffany

Joaquín Sorolla, Louis Comfort Tiffany, 1911, oil on canvas, The Hispanic Society of America, New York, NY, USA

SorollaPan

Joaquín Sorolla, Castilla or La fiesta del pan, oil on canvas, 351 x 1392 cm, The Hispanic Society of America, New York, NY, USA

 

Sorolla suffered a stroke in 1920, while painting a portrait in his garden in Madrid. Paralysed for over three years, he died on 10 August 1923.

BT, 3 April 2018, Meeting No 14