Figure Drawings

A discussion on figure drawing beginning with Leonard’s Vitruvian man, showing the proportions of the human body

LeonardoVitruvian

Leonardo da Vinci, L’Uomo Vitruviano, c1490, pen and ink with wash over metal point on paper, 35 × 26 cm, Gallerie dell’Accademia, Venice

and one of his studies of a hand

LeonardoHand

Leonardo da Vinci, Study of a Hand

Seven examples of the depiction of the human figure

The work of Egon Schiele may serve as a basis for the representation of the use of the figure in art. His style is only one of countless others

SchieleBlackHair

Egon Schiele, Girl with Black Hair, 1911, watercolour & graphite pencil on paper, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio, USA

SchieleCrossedArms

Egon Schiele, Girl with Black Hair, 1911, watercolour & graphite pencil on paper, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio, USA

SchieleCrouching

Egon Schiele, Crouching Nude

SchieleLoinCloth

Egon Schiele, Standing Male Nude with Red Loincloth, 1914, Albertina, Vienna

SchieleYellowJacket

Egon Schiele, Girl in a Yellow Jacket

A cave painting, to show that mankind has always needed to draw

ChauvetRhino

Big Horn Rhino cave painting, c30,000 BC, Chauvet, Ardèche, France

and a drawing, indicating simplicity and flowing movement

PicassoHead

Pablo Picasso, Drawing of a head

MC, Meeting No23, 21 August 2018

Picasso and the Dove

Back to Birds in Art

Picasso’s father was a pigeon fancier, and Pablo spent his childhood in Málaga surrounded by the birds. His father was also an artist and taught him how to draw them.

One of the early works in his blue period shows a child holding a dove

PicassoChildDove

Pablo Picasso, L’enfant au pigeon, 1901, oil on canvas, 73 x 54 cm, Private Collection

He included them in this painting from his cubist period

PicassoWomanPigeons

Pablo Picasso, Femme aux pigeons, 1930, pastel on paper applied to canvas, 200 x 185 cm, Centre Pompidou, Paris

The model for this work was Marie-Thérèse Walter, whom he had met in 1927, and who was his partner for more than ten years.

PicassoDove

Pablo Picasso 1881–1973, La Colombe, 1949, lithograph on paper, 57 x 76 cm, Tate Gallery, London

Picasso made the lithograph on 9 January 1949 in the atelier of the printmaker Fernand Mourlot in Paris. It is  a traditional, realistic picture of a pigeon which had been given to him by his great friend Matisse.

The image was used to illustrate the poster of the 1949 Paris Peace Congress and became not only the symbol of the Peace Congresses but also of the ideals of world Communism. The Congrès mondial des Partisans de la paix opened in Paris on 20 April.

PicassoPeacePoster

The day before, Picasso’s partner, Françoise Gilot, had given birth to his fourth child, who was named Paloma, the Spanish word for dove.

PicassoDoveDrawing

Picasso later developed this image into a simple, graphic line drawing that is one of the world’s most recognisable symbols of peace.

PicassoDoves

Pablo Picasso, L’Atelier (Pigeons), 1957

Matisse and Picasso had known each other since 1904 when they were introduced at the Paris salon of Gertrude Stein. They were not only friends but each had a profound influence on one another and their art.

After Matisse died in 1954, Picasso was devastated. He moved his family to a large villa near Cannes,  and painted a series of eleven paintings which he called Studio in the style of his friend, and in homage to him. Many of them feature doves, which were beloved of Matisse.

MatissePhotoPigeons

Henri Cartier-Bresson, Matisse and his pigeons, 1944

BT

 

Fragmentation

We have traced, very briefly, the history of French art  from Academic Romanticism (e.g. painters such as Bouguereau,  Meissonnier and Delacroix), to the Realists (Courbet), to the Impressionists (too many to list!!) and to Post-Impressionism (Cézanne, Seurat, Gauguin and van Gogh).

What came next?

FAUVISM  (The Wild Ones)  c. 1905

Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlaminck, André Dérain, Kees van Dongen, Raoul Duffy, Georges Braque

They separated colour from its purely descriptive purpose, thus placing it on the canvas as   an independent element.
MOOD projection was displayed as well as SUBJECT.

CUBISM  c.1907

Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Salvador Dali, Paul Cézanne, Juan Gris, Marc Chagall, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger

…leading to Abstract painting

Piet Mondrian, Diego Rivera, Paul Klee, Alberto Giocometti

Later

… David Hockney, Francis Bacon

CezanneSainteVictoire

Paul Cézanne, Mont Saint Victoire, 1904, oil on canvas, 79 x 89 cm, Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA, USA

CezanneSainteVictoire6

Paul Cézanne, Mont Saint Victoire, 1895, oil on canvas, Barnes Foundation, Merion, PA, USA

CezanneChateauNoir

Paul Cézanne, Château noir, 1904, oil on canvas, 74 x 97 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, USA

GrisPicasso

Juan Gris, Portrait of Pablo Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas, Art Institute, Chicago, USA

GrisGuitar

Juan Gris, Guitar and Music Paper, 1927, oil on canvas, 65 x 81 cm, Saidenberg Gallery, New York, NY, USA

PicassoSelfPortrait

Pablo Picasso, Self Portrait, 1907, oil on canvas, 50 x 46 cm, Narodni Gallery, Prague, Czech Republic

PicassoBreadFruit

Pablo Picasso, Bread with Fruit Dish on a Table, 1909, oil on canvas, 164 x 132 cm, Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland

From 1909 Braque and Picasso worked together to develop Cubism.

Shown below are three examples of their work in collage, which was then used in fine art for the first time.

PicassoGirlMandolin

Pablo Picasso, Girl with a Mandolin, 1910, oil on canvas, 100 x 74 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

PicassoGuitar

Pablo Picasso, Guitar, 1913, collage, 66 x 50 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

BraqueGuitar

Georges Braque, Guitar, collage, 1913, 100 x 65 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA

PicassoHorto.jpg

Pablo Picasso, L’Usine, Horta de Ebro, 1909, oil on canvas, 51 x 60, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg

BraqueFishingBoats

Georges Braque, Bateaux de pêche, 1909, oil on canvas, 92 x 73 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA

THE  END?

Cubism was to lead eventually to the de Styl movement of Piet Mondrian

and , thus, the beginning of Abstraction.

The two World Wars, I would suggest, put an end to any further logical discussion on the French art with which we have become so familiar.

Fragmentation seems now to be the order of the day.

MH 17 April 2018, Meeting No 15